Differential expression of cancer stem cell markers and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral submucosal fibrosis


Objectives: The poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is vastly due to late diagnosis. The oral submucosal fibrosis (OSMF) is often unnoticed pathology linked with high risk of malignancy. Recently, we demonstrated that the clinicopathological alterations in OSMF and OSCC patients were correlated with cancer stem cell (CSCs) markers (CD133 and CD44). However, the parallel alterations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) with CSCs expression are largely unexplored. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between IL-1β alterations and CSC marker expression in both OSMF and OSCC situations.
Methods: A total of 135 people have signed up for the study. There were sixty each in OSMF and OSCC groups, as well as 15 healthy controls. Levels of serum IL-1β were examined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine the
expression of CD133 and CD44. For evaluating differential CSCs expression, IHC scoring (0–4) was utilized.
Results: The IHC results showed maximum subjects in the OSMF and OSCC displaying CD44 and CD133 positivity, although the extent of expression in terms of IHC scoring found variable. CD133 and CD44-positive subjects showed increased
levels of IL-1β in the OSMF and OSCC group. Nevertheless, the enhancement of IL1β is more pronounced in the OSCC cases. Further, we observed a direct link of IL-1β levels with IHC scoring. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a significant role for CD44 and CD133 positivity in the increase of IL-1β levels.
Conclusion: We concluded that concurrent simultaneous changes in CSC biomarkers and IL-1β may help with early detection of OSMF and OSCC conditions. 


Cancer stem cells CD133 CD44 IL-1β OSCC OSMF Oral lesions
Awasthi, S., Ahmad, S., Gupta, R., Iqbal, M. S., & Ahmad, A. (2023). Differential expression of cancer stem cell markers and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral submucosal fibrosis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 17(6), 28–38. Retrieved from https://pub.qu.edu.sa/index.php/journal/article/view/8422
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Author Biography

Ausaf Ahmad, Assistant Professor, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Mango Orchard campus, Lucknow, UP, India

Dr. Ausaf Ahmad

Assistant Professor, AMITY Institute of Biotechnology

Dr Ausaf Ahmad is currently working as an Assistant Professor, AMITY Institute of Biotechnology, AUUP, Lucknow Campus. He is credited with B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. in Biochemistry from Department of Biochemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, India. He was awarded Ph.D. from Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), Lucknow in 2011. Dr. Ahmad has 11 years of research experience in the field of Biochemistry and Neuropharmacology. His research focuses on stress biology, medicinal plants and neurochemistry through the identification of potential targets and lead molecules for their therapeutic efficacy under different stressful conditions. In year 2010, Dr. Ahmad joined AMITY University and engaged in teaching and research in the field of Immunology and Biochemistry. He has credited with more than 28 international and national research papers of high impact along with 1 International reference book. He is reviewer of various international journals and editorial member of AMITY Biotechnology Newsletter. He is an active thrust in various academic developmental activities viz. University central exams and entrance examinations, Convocation, Placements, Cultural and University Sport activities.